Pornographic literature appeared in the sixteenth century and rapidly gained popularity. It was different from the galant or gambling stories of past centuries. One of the most important differences was that in pornographic literature Disclaimed rules and authority: Eros went out of the way of conformity. The charge of carrying pornographic literature has become particularly destructive after In 1683, the book "Venera in the monastery, or Monahin in the women's sorrow." Funny conversations... recorded by Abbey Duppra. The impact was directed directly to the church, and it happened two years before the Nant Edict was revoked, with all the consequences. consequences, at the top of King Sun's glory.
It's sometimes written to Jean. Barren, and sometimes François Chavigny de la Bretonier; it is built in two dialogues Monks, 19 and 16 years old. They're meeting at the monastery, sharing welcoming kisses, talking about being cautious and seeing. And yet, " I should be able to afford something to saturate the dam appetites and down to the weakness of the spirit " . That's what Angelica's sisters are for. Abbey, monk-felian and capucin come to them (primarily young sister of Agnese). There are no indecent descriptions in the work, although sisters are talking about erotic topics. They are. The girls ' school is being discussed and neglected. Even stronger, they censure. Nicolas Shoreier ' s Sotadium, because they believe that " we should only be betrayed " those pleasures that remain within the framework of natural laws and prudentiality " .
Pornographic literature rises against decency, but at first it stays in and does not describe perversion (this is stigmatized. Schorje's book is the only one who decided to invade this area. The authors have resorted to pornographic plots to state the inconsistency of their own thoughts, to express little or no silver judgements close to the free thought of spiritual liberals. They protect the natural sciences and the philosophy of nature against the established to the authority. In the 1650s to 1690s, pornographic literature is developed and distributed at the same time in the same social settings as in the same way. New science style. These are large cities where the social structure is undergoing change, where the existence of a person is becoming increasingly independent and its behaviour and thoughts becomes increasingly individual, where there is a need to determine the place of its own body in the space and thus recognize itself.
Your role was played. and the easing of sin related to both urban and natural development Science. It can be assumed that in England, the popularity of pornographic literature is linked to the reaction to the purity of Cromwell time, but it is not. The wave of pornography came from France before the Restoration, in the 1650s, and didn't weaken the whole century. The Vienna in the monastery was translated into English in 1683 that year, When she left in Kelna. In 1724 and 1725, new remittances became available, generating power. Britain to take orders against indecent literature. Everything. Europe, and particularly in Amsterdam, Paris and London, is subject to new convictions, That the nature and feelings of the individual are more important than the restraining laws of society, based on hypocrisy and external integrity.
Paradoxically, the increase in moral, religious and political censorship, as well as the pronounced desire for sexual abuse, has contributed greatly to the birth of pornographic literature. It arises when there is a clear discrepancy between theoretical principles and reality, it has a constant balance between rules. Privacy and its violation, it acquires significant cultural status. Sexuality is not reflected in real punitive measures, but rather in real punitive measures. Looks like a compass shooter indicating a trend. Despite police oversight Removals of prohibited essays, sale of pornographic books and drawings flow in bulk.
The market is unusually large, or the sellers wouldn't risk it. The main centre of such literature in the sixteenth century was Paris, where whole organized groups, including the manufacture and sale of pornographic products, were involved. As many as 12, it's a completely unheard case for the publication and sale of other prohibited books. The culture of street life, which is a French capital, contributes to the development of a variety of forms of sexual trafficking. Readers The addresses of brothels and prostitutes for amateurs and just curious. After 1789 A list of registered sluts, based on the London model, shows the rates and skills of each. From 1789 to 1792, there are 40 indexes: " Grizzets for gifts " , " Arabs of Parisian girls " , " Tariff of Palé-Royal girls " , etc. with addresses, prices, (blond, brunette, young) special skills (One active citizen, plumping gear, one day, one night, man)
The 16th-century pornography can be described as a naturalistic image in the words or drawings of sexual scenes or sexual organs that intentionally violate Universally accepted moral and social taboos.
In England, interest in such stories is steadily increasing from 1660 to 1800. Translations of pornographic writings of ancient and modern authors, published First of all, French. This phenomenon is due both to sexual harassment and The growing censorship of literature in general. The rules of decency do not allow for writing in a literary work not only about sexual activity, but also about customary acts, as well as dam pleasures. Pornography plays the role of resistance religious and moral dictatorships and at the same time a matter of living interest, saturation No one can impress the streets or the printed press.
Pornographic works, of course, are transmitted to each other in secret. The reader is just... A curious observer. He's experiencing a cold waiver, but does not risk being severely punished by the costs of publishers and distributors of such literature. The reader's pleasure is similar to some book masturbation or even a prostitute visit. Mr. Nikola is an example of this, born under the hot feather of Retif de la Breton.
It is generally assumed that pornographic works consist of recurring cliché. However, pornography has evolved, changed and evolved over a century of philosophers. adjust to time requirements. Maybe it's just that every generation of readers grows up and reaches maturity? The absence of sufficiently scrupulous studies makes it impossible to answer this question with certainty. In any case, two distinctly marked fractures can be identified in the development of pornography: the first It's mid-century, and the second is in 1789.
First breaking point matches Publication in 1748 of Lametry ' s " Chelovek Machine " and its Art of pleasure, with these publications in England John Cleland ' s book, " Women ' s Moirs for comforts " , better known as Fanny Hill. At this point, it seems that the purpose of such writings can be defined as " pornography " . for pornography. " Cleland's using a new realist letter technique, but he's not. The true history of the prostitutes of their time and does not deviate too much from the erotic tradition of the past century. We don't see the real life of a street prostitute or a galant lady who's being treated with scumbags. Fanny's not pregnant, he's not infected with venereal. disease, not sleeping. But she ends up marrying her first love. client. Moreover, it enjoys each of its partners. Cleland is close to the sexual model set out in Girls School: no perversion. And most importantly, it's a woman's right to an orgasm. The novel represents an idealised Men's eyes on women's orgasm: it's considered to be more complete than penis.
The clitoris don't say much, they don't describe it as detailed as the penis, and his role in it. The author does not know that a woman can enjoy her orgasm. More than her partner. Difference to traditional Christian morals is obvious, but it is. does not rethink the nature of the relationship between the sexes. Total Women ' s existence continues to be linked to marriage, although to love marriage. After Fanny's traitors and adventures are reborn in adultery. The inviolability of her fate is that she was alternately a demon and an angel, a lover and a lover. The spouse, but in themselves these roles are quite consistent with that double male standard, who is alleged at this time.
It is difficult to determine the true number of pornographic writings. One researcher proposes 25 names of French books from 1714 to 1749, the other 22 Names 1741 to 1797. Some names from the two lists match. Among them and renowned works of great masters, such as the " Cavalier de Grie " tale Prevo, Life of Marianne and Good Farmers Marivo, Shumova, " Misconduct " Heart and mind, Sofa, Kobilion-soon, Galant Monashes and Teresa-Filosof Marquis D’Arzhana, “Indiscrete treasures” Didro. With regard to pornographic books in net Of course, the most interesting among them are the recently re-issued history of the House. Bugra, Cartians ' Ghost, published in 1741 by Jean-Charle Gervez de Latusz, Tour Memoir (1743) Godara d’Arcura, Arts of Lametry (1748) Margotista Fuger de Monbron.
Twenty-five works of which In the first half of the century, English has been translated since 1728. - Between 1735 and 1749, which shows a keen interest in such things. B 1748 1749 Seven books appearing in France were almost immediately translated into French Shakespeare. Fanny Hill may have been affected. Among those that didn't work honour to be translated, Art e.li, or Paris e... Whore Bakular d’Arno, which took place in 1741. Maybe he seemed too trivial for the English reader? By the end of Ludovic XV in France, pornographic declines are somewhat lower The wave, but by the beginning of the next king's rule, it is regaining its strength. Except for Sada. Name two more fruit writers who make the same soil. Andrea de Nercia publishes in 1775 a book entitled " Felicia, or my ancestry " and a few more volumes in such a book. In a spirit until 1792, when " My assailant or Radice Lolota " comes out. After him. Mirabo is coming with the Eurotic Bibleion (Erotic Books) of 1782 and Zanavez is raised or Lora's meal of 1785. It should also be added to “E...mania” by Gabriel Senaca de Meliana (1775), Anti-Justin Retif de la Breton (1797), as well as anonymous essay: " Mademoiselle Safo " (1789), " Carolina and Belval " or " Sweetness " (3rd edition). 1797).
The French Revolution has not stopped this flow, but the taste of sexuality has increased. Not only has the number of publications increased, there's a special attachment to the description of the vice. At first, it was linked to the desire to criticize political and the social values of the Old Order, then became part of a wider perception that All prohibitions have to be revised.
The popularity of such literature has spread throughout Western Europe, and the word “pornography” has gradually become meaning, I think we're investing in it today. This was used for the first time by Retif de la Breton in 1769, which was the way in which he referred to the work of prostitutes. But in 1806, the term " pornography " is different: texts or pictures that disturb public order and contradict morals. In England, this term is not used before the end of the nineteenth century. In legal practice, the precedent was the verdict handed down in 1728 against Edmond Kerla, publisher, who published a book that was deemed indecent. This verdict covered all the meanings associated with the notion of " pornography " until 1959, when the " Unsustainable Publications Act " (Obscene) was adopted. Publications Act). Until 1728, the courts did not hear such cases, from 1728 to 1735 sharply The number of translations of pornographic books is decreasing, possibly due to fear of punishment. However, in the 1740s, the number of transfers is increasing again: it is clear that there is a resemblance of such misconduct. Decorations change only by the end of the century. In 1787, the " Commodity of Calling " was founded, with the intention of punishing vice and immorality. It was particularly affected by books that poisoned readers, especially young people. Sensible outputs See only after 1801, when the " organs of suppressing vice and inspiration appear religions and good-needs. Perhaps the growing French-English hostility has increased Suspiciousness to books so heavily consumed on the other side La Mansha.
All brighter and brighter is the movement towards the conquest of the pornographic market itself. For example, Andrea de Nercia is not interested in the public. the life of your time. It's different from revolutionaries using sexy. To engage the people ' s readerships and make them think about social and political issues. Since 1795, productions have been reported such sexual pleasures, which are still very thorough in the best genre samples They were silent: beatings with animals, transsexuality. They're coming. In two anonymous works: the Children Bordel and the Eleanor or the Happy Development. Second hero. Eleanor, at the same time as the child of vice, and the illegal child of the noble Father. Of course, there's a pasta on many stories about orphans, already. They're in their teeth. And only sadism with his mind of torture and death was left unused by no one but the famous brand. It's very eloquent to say how much It was difficult to adapt such a type of literature to the current cultural flow, A society that tried to abandon the traditional prohibitions of the previous century, but I didn't want to run ahead, to the eroticity of the time of fall. Marriage was subject to legal law divorce, reinstatement of the value of conjugal ties was to occur later in Napoleon. In the meantime, the problems of spousal life have gone back to erotic work. The Philosopher's intact liberal Teresa has given way to a vicious messenger. with lesbian tendencies. She's engaged in prostitution to break up men and strip them of their sense of manhood. But to turn completely She should have rethinked the whole thing. A system of representations built to the glory of the male male male. I couldn't do it. No heroin of pornographic essays of the mid-seventeenth century, Fanshone in 1655, or Fanny Hill at 1748. And in the next century, as we see, the male male male has gained additional self-defense.
What cares about the people of the same era sometimes leaves their descendants indifferent. From Andrea. De Nercia?
Without an opportunity to analyse the particularity of each generation's feelings, I am satisfied with one private aspect and I will try to feel the distance that separates them from us. What's the previous scandal? Where to start. Comparison? Here's the 18th-century gravure, attached to Gandt, known in the guash version. It's like a P.A. Bowden's work. It's called "Paulday," it's portrayed as richly dressed. A woman lying in a garden on a lawn. One of her legs is wrapped, right hand points to the book, She's lying next to her on the grass, and she's keeping her left under the skirt. She must be testing. The sweetness of the sky after she's been touching herself, and she's got her reading. A scabre book. It's not just the game the author offers, Not only is it possible to be an indication that, in general, the shiny borehole in Fragonara (oc. 1775-1777). Affects the misunderstanding that arises in the minds of the man of the twenty-first century: well, she's been stalking, and what is it?
What was thin An intellectual jewellery, a dangerous joke about a forbidden self-defense, an inference to the fact that sweets are abhorrent pleasure at all, as is the woman ' s sweetness to the outside observer, all this is now. It's almost like a household with a weak provocative charge. In a time when naked women appear on the beach in the summer and in advertising when they exist. Hard films, this picture does not in itself represent anything unusual. Come on. Except in Puerto Rican America, she would have caused an anger like what caused it. Jane Jackson's naked chest, naked for a minute on the Super Bawl Halftime Show 1 February 2004.
As we address the scabre literature, we must take this distance into account. In two centuries, the destructive power of those works that have once been lost is almost completely lost. aim at the taboos and prejudices of society. The society now exists. In history books. But we can draw something out of this literature, it's been able to. To bring to us some refrigeration, which is associated with any violation of the prohibitions.
The pictures are often combined with the text and are Sometimes by giving famous pictures of Aretino's signatures. In addition, erotic The picture may be in the corner of a serious painting or graviar, where it hides peacefully, by misleading the censor and by giving further pleasure to the knowledge: the viewer is involved in a secret game, he's experiencing a cold excitement from secret complicity and his sweet pleasure is increasing. That's what the XVIII century is like. ease and imagination, which is hidden under masculine comity, goodness and obedience. But not everyone can understand secret time signs. For this. We need to get to one level with those who have wealth, noble origin and wealth. Okay.
The most salient books, at first glance, are vulgar and insecure, where all are constant. They're talking, books that would like Baron de Blo so much, they're not available. of all, in particular, the large number of peasants who cannot read Most of the French population. In England, the literacy rate was higher at 1,750 62 per cent of men and 38 per cent of women, but there are no pornographic literature I have received absolute distribution. A sophisticated reader capable of assessing such The treasures and keeping them secret were almost exclusively in Paris. or London.
First type of pornography Medical or pseudential works: sexual life guides, sex tractors where It is often referred to masturbation, flogging or Circulation. At that time, all, including medicine, I'm sorry. I appreciate it. Porca used demand primarily in England and even became a kind of national stereotype in the eyes of neighbouring peoples (which was obviously unfair). Books That's a good deal. Edmund Kerle, famous publisher of too brave books, Published in 1718, the " Flogging Test for Decent Cases " , for which prosecuted.
In 1761, the book was reprinted with a warning. A publisher located above the heading, stating that such a sexy practice increases love.
In London, special brothels, bagnios and seraglios were opened in which sophisticated amateurs were found They've been given pleasure. In 1783, interpretation was translated, erroneously attached Abbout Boualo, Dr. Sorbonne; he was called Flagant History. It's actually that. It was a joke essay designed to rid the Catholic religious rites, and as a necessary orgasm satellite, it was a story of a small text on 46 pages published anonymously in 1791, entitled " Modern Privacy; or An essay about the art of the Circulation. "
The second part describes the batting, the third, and the last one, the strangulation that makes a special sense if you lose the detox. organs. And that's what makes it easier for criminals to carry out executions. For gentlemen, It is recommended that Dr. Ouanbatchela ' s patacea, which is sold under the title " Uanbatchela Life Elixy " . In 1793, Journal Two articles shall be published.
One about the origin of a love strangulation, the other effects of temporary respiratory loss on humans♪ With regard to women, They are encouraged to use dolls whose legs are made in the form of self-incrimination cylinders from soft matter. According to some French traveler 1713 - 1714, such dolls were sold at St. James Park in London. These appear to have played the same role as the one-hand reading books.
Second and third type of pornography More traditional.
It's antireligious and anti-aristic writings. The authors follow the stalemates of the liberals of the past century. The scumbag (the rake) openly attends non-screen clubs that After 1720, they preferred to be kept in the shadows, preached the atheism, which stubbornly squeezes and scorns over the church. William Hogart made fun of this racial type in 1732 in 1732. A series of gravels entitled Mota Carrie. Drinking, playing, sex and unfair behavior Here's the basic teachings of the pervert. He's a nobleman or an unfamiliar but wealthy family, travels a lot and knows foreign languages. All these qualities corresponds to the French aristocracy, which is common despite the existing antagonism between the two nations.
The subject of sexual abuse of Catholic monks is high in pornographic products.
It's accepted that this is a specific English phenomenon, Protestant. But that's not true. Such stories have been widely distributed in France of the sixteenth century, and they are in Rablet, in Heptamerone Margarita Navarra, sisters. King Francis I, with Heptameron reissued on several occasions in the sixteenth century. Same. The subject is also included in the " History of House Bugra, the Cartese Prostitute " , published by Latusch in 1741. The main hero of Saturnen's work, whose abbreviated name refers to his secret propensity (bougre, i.e. rude, common nickname of sodomites), is the son of the nun. In a variety of adventures, he finds a mother in a secret cel, where The monks hold lovers. He's involved in orgy, like he's dealing with six monks. At once and for a little bit, his vital forces are being destroyed. He raped a nun and ran to Paris, where he meets his cousin Suzon in the brothel. She says she's sick. He's sleeping with her. Both are then arrested and imprisoned. Suzon dies and Saturnen gets sick. To save his life, he's being castrated, and he's going back to the monastery where he spends his last year as a douchebag. The subtitle of the book) and the memoirs. The show leaves a double impression. C on the one hand, it celebrates erotic freedom and pleasure as a true new religion. But in the end, the hero returns to the monastery, the riot against the rules leads to That he's not capable of any active sexual life.
In fact, the book ends with a sort of glorification of a moderate lifestyle that is forced to lead The hero after the castration and the superstition didn't make him happy. Dogmatisms of faith are fading, but the ideal of the book is that of the middle of the city, That's what's formed at this time. Under pornographic cover The idea of the need for absolute control of itself is addressed to all those who He wants to avoid Saturn's sad fate. He's the one who thought he'd end up enjoying himself. Once again to England, we will mention the work. Father Paul and the blue-eyed monk of Saint Catherine (1770).
With regard to anti-aristic pornography in England, it also relies on France ' s tradition, namely " Scandal Chronicles " . Skabre stories, allegedly From the life of the Versailles, the English reader is despaired. Franz Moran, who emigrated to England in 1769, denies the moral discord of his compatriots. In 1771, it publishes two works in London: Fillosophical and Gazetteer to London. Cyras, or the Scandal anecdotes of the French yard, and they bring him success. Madame Dubarri is a constant object for his ridicule. He calls her illegal. The daughter of a maid and a nun tells me she was a prostitute and a chicken, and also entered into a lesbian relationship with girls. She sprays her sexual organs. The spirits inside and the ambre outside, which attracts the king.
Ludovic XV intends Go after Moran, but he's using blackmail to publish an announcement about a quick exit. The secret memoirs of a public woman and trying to force the King to buy a manuscript from him. In 1773, it's like Rockboll's. To England policemen to apprehend Moran, and he's telling the newspapers that the French want to kidnap. Emigrants who fled the king's tyranny. There is a wave of universal sympathies and protest, and the King ' s ambassadors have to leave the island in a hurry. Moran's money. Manuscript, stay with him. The King sends Bomarche to cut off Moran, as a result He has to buy at a high price all copies of the pamphlets and accept the extradition. He's retired. Then Moran becomes a secret agent of Louis XVI.
That's how pornography becomes a means to achieve what it wants and allows it to live on a wide leg!
Fourth Group The scabbery comes to anonymous Marquise de Sada. There's sex that matches blood and death. This is a significant number. Works on the movement and non-breed of London criminals convicted and executed for rape, incest, and the adülter between murderers. In France, a similar phenomenon represents a prosperous trade in paintings or gravures, which portrays short love ties at the foot of the hanging or on the stake. In England, except There are also numerous official publications, such as the Tiberna Chronic in four volumes. (oc. 1768) or the five-volume " Newgate Calendar of Blood Killers " (oc. 1773). In the future, we will continue to turn to this complex combination of motives and stories used by famous authors such as Daniel Defo. Undoubtedly, the reading of the relationship stories that have developed against the background of torture has had an impact on the process of establishing its own. " I " , as the perception of the criminals ' molestation is presented the sin and the antimodel of conduct for the benefiting citizens.
Fifth type of pornography related to marriage and sexual war. This way. includes literature referring to " criminal relations " as referred to in English-Saxon. Infidelity, as well as pictures and essays on prostitution, horns and the struggle for home ownership, which in France is called " right to wear pants " . In England, such topics are particularly common At the end of the sixteenth century, in particular, Newton and Woodward caricatures. Caricature " Who wears pants? Richard Newton (1794) represents a powerful woman based on the right. A leg to be put forward. Hands in the glasses, like theatrical bragon, are ironically conquering unsuccessful strokes of the rage of the cloak-mooch, which is standing in front of her with a twisted face in the potion of an unsuccessful boxer. According to the gravel, the role changed. Zamók Woodward (oc. 1800) portrays a woman wearing her husband's belt. It's resonant. And I'm very happy to say that he's not going to care for his maids anymore. Prostitutes are of particular interest to writers. Their biography is generally within the moralization framework. That's why Daniel Defo thought it was possible. To write Mall Flanders and Roxan and John Cleland to complete Fanny Hill with the matrimonial love. The life of a high-light chicken, however, has a perverted adversity of a scandalous chronic. These are the original memoirs of the famous Miss Maria Brown (1766), assigned to John Cleland in commercial interest.
The sixteenth-century pornographic wave does not change much to the deep fracture associated with the revolution.
She's absorbing a bit of cliche and stereotyping, in the most The bold books do double standard, and the sexual roles of men and women, The centuries have not been questioned. Erotic literature also shows that sexual life outside the conjugal ties is increasing and further delayed. Tone of bad taste. Sexual repression is becoming more hidden, but also deeper than in the previous century. Times of torture, censorship, fear of hell's bows go away, and replaced by internal restraint. Forms Controls change because the growing success of pornography has led to the discreditation of authorities unable to enforce their prohibitions. Basic, however, to the needs of time, this perception of marriage as the cornerstone of society remains unchanged. The most exciting erotic thoughts are those that allow the dream of further bliss in the arms of prostitutes or vicious women, but excludes the extremes of all perverts surrounded by prohibitions such as homosexuality, oral and anal sex, animal affairs, flour and death. English A little more than the continent ' s inhabitants encourage flogging. It is even part of the system of ordinary school sentences and is " reasonable retribution " under the law of 1860, which parents are allowed to apply to children. Meeting on 5 July 2004 by 250 votes to none The 7 House of Lords refused to repeal this law.
Pornography in literature and art has become an option for those whose sex life It's too normal. This also explains why the number of consumers of such products is constantly increasing. Pornography doesn't take the reader too far away from him, It doesn't go beyond culture, but it allows for a little time on its side, where the pleasure of mild default is crumbled with the discovery of invisible sensuals. opportunities. Only during the revolution, some authors went much further, joined to describe real perversions. However, by the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Napoleon Kulak In France and the many anti-pocket societies formed in England put an end to all these lands. Dialogue of supporters of spousal sexuality as necessary for the continuation of the kind, on the one hand, and of more sophisticated, more comprehensive or more trivial pleasures in the arms of the vicious Women, before returning to the matrimonial bed, on the other.
Pornographic works largely support this general duality of conduct, which is now based on natural law, medicine, philosophy, not political or religious prohibitions. House of Bugra, depleted in pleasure, deprived of essential A part of his life, he was an unhappy victim of prohibitions. He was unable to control himself enough, to resist temptations and to wait for the road on average to lead him. Fortunately.